Shoreline Change Mapping Using Remote Sensing and GIS--Case Study: Bushehr Province
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Author: Ali Kourosh Niya, Ali.A. Alesheikh, Mohsen Soltanpor, Mir Masoud Kheirkhah zarkesh
Abstract: In both developed and developing countries, the coastal zone is likely to undergo the most profound change in the near future. More than 60 percent of the world's population lives within 60 km of the coast. By the turn of the century two-thirds of the population (3.7 billion) in developing countries have occupied the coast. Consequently, unless careful environmental management and planning are instituted, severe conflicts over coastal space and resource utilization are likely, and the degradation of natural resources will close development options. In addition to the population pressure, the world’s coastal areas and small islands are highly vulnerable to climate change. Low-lying delta, barrier coasts, low-elevation reef islands, and coral atolls are especially sensitive to the rising sea level, as well as to changes in rainfall, storm frequency, and intensity. Inundation, flooding, erosion, and saltwater intrusion are only a few of the potential impacts of climate change. Iran, connected to Caspian Sea in its north and to Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman in its south, has totally about 5700 kilometers(scale 1:25000)coastlines and this country has the largest coastline in the Persian Gulf. A part of this coastline is located in Bushehr Province. For coastal zone monitoring, coastline extraction in various times is a fundamental work. Coastline, defined as the line of contact between land and a body of water , as one of the most important linear features on the earth's surface, holds a dynamic nature; therefore, coastal zone management requires the information about coastline changes.
The main objective of this research was to estimate the coastline changes for a period of 1990 to 2005 using RS and GIS. In this research, TM satellite data, dated 1990, were compared with ETM+ satellite data of 2000 and 2005 in order to deduce changes. Different image processing techniques have been carried out to enhance the changes from 1990 to 2005. Band math, band ratio, supervised and unsupervised classification, post classification, band selection and masking were applied using GIS software.
In this research, coastlines of the study area were extracted using satellite imagery. These changes were perpetual. However, the coastline has been changed significantly from 2001 to 2005. These great changes have happened as a consequence of development of the south Pars exclusive zone of energy (asaloyeh). A new approach was employed for coastline extraction, for which a histogram threshold together with band ratio techniques was utilized. In order to assess the accuracy of the results, they have been compared with ground truth observations. The accuracy of the extracted coastline has been estimated as 1.2 pixels (pixel size=30 m).
Keywords: Coastline Extraction; TM & ETM+sensors; Histogram Thresholding; Band Ratios; Remote Sensing
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